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In the Early Middle Ages there were two settlement centres, a secular settlement in the former castrum and a religious settlement on the grounds of the late-Roman cemeteries outside the walls. Both the religious histories and archeological discoveries indicate that both areas remained inhabited continuously into the Early Middle Ages. The former chapel of St. Stephen inside the castrum was built on the foundation of an earlier, late-Roman building.

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A burial memorial in the cemetery of the nearby St. Peter's Chapel dates to around the collapse of the Roman Empire. By the middle of the 5th Century, St. Eucherius of Lyon mentions the martyrdom of St. Ursus and St. Victor and a cult of saints in Solothurn. Victor to Geneva , while the bones of St. Ursus remained in Solothurn. The church dedicated to the veneration of Saint Ursus is first mentioned in After the collapse of Lotharingia, it became part of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy. The royal court resided in Solothurn on several occasions until , however, there is no evidence of a permanent royal palace.

In , it was acquired by the dukes of Zähringen. Under the rule of the Zähringens, in , Solothurn's coins are first mentioned. In , causidicus or Zähringen appointed judges first appeared in Solothurn.

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After the extinction of the Zähringer line in it became a free imperial city under the Holy Roman Emperor. In , the town council and Schultheiss or mayor became mostly independent and had their own town seals. In , a group of nobles that could witness and support deeds, known as consuls et cives Solodorenses , first appears in the town. Initially the nobles exercised power over the entire town. However, the guild movement of the 14th Century resulted in a reduction in the power of the nobles and also a restricted guild system in Solothurn.

By around , an eleven-member Altrat Council of Elders and a member Jungrat Younger Council existed in the city. Each of the eleven guilds were represented by a member of the Altrat and two members of the Jungrat. These 33 councillors exercised, together with the mayor, the power of government and helped appoint lawmakers. The members of the two councils were elected each year by the citizens of the city, after which the councils and mayor appointed many of the government officials. The noble families retained some power as the guilds became part of the town council.

However, in the last noble family died out and positions on the council fell to wealthy farmers, butchers and millers. Until the pogrom on during an outbreak of the plague , there was a small Jewish community in Solothurn. Over the 13th to 15th centuries, the citizens of the city slowly emancipated themselves from the higher nobility.

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In and Emperor Rudolf I codified the previously poorly defined rights of the city and granted it the privilege de non Evocando or the right that their citizens were protected from trial in foreign courts. In , Emperor Ruprecht extended the de non Evocando privilege to include the royal High Court as well.

As the city grew in power, it bound the Monastery of St. Ursus more closely to the city. In the city defeated claims made by the Monastery on the right to appoint the Schultheiss.

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Shortly after the acquisition of the right to the Schultheiss office in , the city came into possession of the vogt right over the Monastery by granting citizenship rights to the former vogt bailiff , Burkhard Senn the Elder. In the city received the right to appoint canons and provosts from the Pope. After the alliance with Bern in , it became part of the Swiss Confederation. In the Habsburgs attacked the city, involving Solothurn in the Battle of Sempach.

By the treaty of two years later, the Habsburgs renounced all claims to the territory of the city.

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The latter was expanded by acquisition of neighbouring lands in the 15th century, roughly up to the today's canton area. Before there was a Zähringer fortified tower north of the Monastery of St. In the first half of the 13th Century, a city wall was built around the area of the former castrum as well as the adjoining industrial area to the east and the churches of St. Peter and St. Near the Monastery of St.

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Ursus, a Franciscan monastery was built, and after it formed the northern city wall on the eastern part of the city. In , the French embassy with a church and stately home was built in the eastern half of the city. In the western part of Solothurn, the town hall was built.


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First it was along the main street and in it moved south of the Franciscan monastery. A main market place grew up along the main street, and in the first half of the 17th century it moved to the northern banks of the Aare. The town hall, market place and clock tower formed the political and economic centre of city life. The medieval cooperative election of the mayor and councillors led to the creation of a nearly hereditary oligarchy by the 15th Century. By the second half of the 16th Century, the political voice of citizens was nearly totally suppressed.

By the second half of the 17th Century, the government was run by a small group of patricians. The oligarchs were weakened in the 18th Century, when in the city council managed to regain some powers.

Solothurn - Wikipedia

However, in , a new citizenship law prevented wealthy families who had moved into Solothurn from becoming members of the council. While this law reduced the number of people who could be on the city council, the introduction of a secret ballot procedure in and measures against vote-buying in allowed more and more non-patrician burghers to join the council. During the heyday of the patricians in the 17th and 18th Centuries, a number of elegant town houses Reinert House —93, Palais Besenval and summer residences outside the city Sommerhaus Vigier —50, Waldegg Castle now in nearby Feldbrunnen-St.

Niklaus , Steinbrugg Castle and Blumenstein Castle were built. A number of new public buildings were also added including; the Arsenal —19 , the town hall with its north staircase tower —34 and its eastern façade Archive tower , completed , the Jesuit church —89 , the new Ambassadorenhof —24 , the Holy Spirit Hospital in a suburb — and the new classicist Church of St. Ursus — In the 16th Century the town walls were reinforced with the Basel gate and three round towers. Between —, following plans by Francesco Polatta, Jacques Le Prestre Tarade and Sébastien de Vauban, the city built fortifications with eleven full and half bastions.

The new city wall increased the size of the city by including the eastern suburb of Kreuzacker. Until the 18th Century, prisoners were housed in the towers of the medieval and early modern fortifications store. Between a new prison was built outside the city walls, which remained in use into the 20th Century.

A gallows was first mentioned in and was located northeast of the city near Feldbrunnen. A second gallows was located to the southwest of the city. Following the capitulation of Solothurn on 2 March , the French General Balthazar Alexis Henri Schauenburg set up a provisional government on the following day. The new government met in April to set up the new constitution. The municipal Bürgergemeinde laid claim to the assets of the defunct city-state and in it received the Sönderungsconvention , large estates and extensive forest land outside the town. In the cantonal parliament withdrew all political power from the eleven city guilds.

Over the following years — all the guilds were dissolved. Due to the municipal law of , the enforcement of the Federal Constitution of and the Cantonal Constitution of , an Einwohnergemeinde was created. The Einwohnergemeinde included all residents of the town, as opposed to the more limited Bürgergemeinde.